Reinforcement using Premack Principle
QUESTION : Reinforcement can be used by teachers to encourage or discourage student behaviors. In your own words and by using two specific examples, describe how reinforcement can be used by teachers to shape student’s behaviors. Give a description using the, along with one or more examples of how you can use it effectively in the classroom.
SAMPLE ANSWER: Reinforcement is the key to everything in the classroom. From the minute the students walk in to the classroom, to the minute they leave to go home, a routine is followed. Parts of the routine vary from day to day depending on what needs to be done, but yet certain day of the week is a specific schedule.
QUESTION : An important consideration in how learning takes place is the type of knowledge to be learned. Comparing declarative and procedural knowledge, use specific examples and describe two or more ways to develop each type of knowledge.
SAMPLE ANSWER : Students go through three stages when they learn declarative knowledge. They need to know and understand the knowledge before they can remember and retrieve the knowledge at a later time.
QUESTION : Teaching children to use metacognitive strategies can help them control their own learning and behavior. In your own words, describe what metacognition is. Identify three basic metacognitive skills and give an example of how the skills can be used to enhance learning.
SAMPLE ANSWER: Metacognition in my own words is a concept that is central to thinking, having knowledge, understanding, and the use of knowledge. It is a learner’s ability to manage their learning, set goals for learning, creating a plan for reaching goals, and monitor progress in achieving goals.
QUESTION :One of the goals of teaching, simply stated, is for students to learn and remember information. This requires the storing and retrieval of information from long-term memory. Describe the factors involved in creating explicit and implicit memories along with two specific examples of how teachers can help develop these types of memory.
SAMPLE ANSWER : Implicit memory is effectively a subconscious, ‘reflex’ memory, created by previous learning experiences. The concept is that this type of memory doesn’t even necessarily involve being consciously aware of the previous experience.
- Basic daily functions which were learned by doing, but not necessarily consciously remembered.
- Peeling an orange with your fingers.
Implicit memory is a type of memory in which previous experiences aid in the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
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